Sandalwood Tree(ചന്ദനം)

Scientific Name:Santalum album L.

Synonyms:Sirium myrtifolium L.  

Systematic Position
Class: Dicotylodonae
Family: Santalaceae

Common Names
Sandalwood Tree
Hindi: Chandan

Description: Santalum album is a small evergreen tree that grows to 4 m in Australia, but in India it is much larger and can grow to a height of 20 m; girth of up to 2.4 m, with slender drooping branchlets. Bark is tight, dark brown, reddish, dark grey or nearly black, smooth in young trees, rough with deep vertical cracks in older trees, red inside. Leaves thin, usually opposite, ovate or ovate elliptical, 3-8 x 3-5 cm, glabrous and shining green above, glaucous and slightly paler beneath; tip rounded or pointed; stalk grooved, 5-15 cm long; venation noticeably reticulate. Flowers purplish-brown, small, straw coloured, reddish, green or violet, about 4-6 mm long, up to 6 in small terminal or axillary clusters, unscented in axillary or terminal, paniculate cymes. Fruit a globose, fleshy drupe; red, purple to black when ripe

Habitat: The species is mostly found in dry deciduous and scrub forests in this region. The vegetation type is a typical monsoon vine thicket growing on pure sand.

Distribution: S. album is indigenous to the tropical belt of the Indian peninsula, eastern Indonesia and northern Australia.

Uses: fruits are edible, fodder, fuel, timber,tannin, essential oil and other products