Indian Elm (ആവ്വൽ)

Scientific Name: Holoptelea integrifolia Planch.

Synonyms: Ulmus integrifolia Roxb.

Unique ID: 83

Systematic Position

Class: Dicotyledonae

Sub Class: Polypetalae                

Series: Thalamiflorae

Order: Malvales

Family: Malvaceae

Common Names

English – Indian elm

Malayalam – ആവ്വൽ

Tamil –  Aya, aavimaram

Hindi – Papri



Description: Large deciduous trees, to 25 m high, bark 6-8 mm thick, whitish-grey, smooth; blaze yellowish-grey, streaked with light brown; branchlets pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate; stipules lateral, scarious; petiole 5-10 mm, stout, pubescent; lamina 6-12.5 x 2.5-6.5 cm, ovate-oblong, ovate or elliptic-ovate, base rounded or subcordate, apex acuminate, margin entire, distantly serrate when young, coriaceous, glabrous above, appressed pubescent punctate below; lateral nerves 6-9 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers polygamous, appear before leaves, 5-8 mm across, greenish-purple, in axillary fascicles; tepals 4 or 5, free, anthers pubescent; female flowers with longer pedicels; ovary superior, compressed, long stipitate, 2-winged, 1-celled, ovule 1; style 2 fid. Fruit a samara, 3 cm across, orbicular, wings nerved, glabrous, seed one. Flowering and fruiting: December-March


Habitat: Common, less in the plains, planted. Foothills to 1100m.  

Distribution: Indo-Malesia

Uses:  Ayurveda, Folk medicine, Siddha ; good fuelwood; timber