Bitter Orange (മധുര നാരകം)

Scientific Name:Citrus aurantium L.

Synonyms:Citrus reticulata Blanco. ,
 Citrus paradisi Macfad.

Systematic Position
Class: Dicotylodonae
Sub Class:   Polypetalae
Family: Rutaceae

Common Names
Sour Orange
മധുര നാരകം
Karna, Madhuranarakam

Description: Trees, up to 10 m tall; crown spreading; branchlets angled; spines axillary, straight. Leaves unifoliolately compound, alternate, spiral; petioles ca. 0.5-1 cm long; lamina ca. 4-9 x 3-4.5 cm, elliptic or obovate to ovate, rounded at base, obtusely acute at apex, crenate along margins; secondary nerves 6-10 pairs. Inflorescences solitary or in axillary racemes, ca. 0.5-1 cm long; Flowers ca. 20-25 mm across, white, bisexual and staminate; calyx cupulate, 4 or 5-lobed, greenish-white; lobes deltoid, acute, glandular; petals 5, white, oblong, acute, glandular; stamens 20-28; filaments polyadelphous, white; stigma capitate. Fruits ca. 4.5-7 x 4-5 cm, oblong, ovoid or subglobose, smooth, pitted, glandular, glossy, green to greenish-yellow; pericarp thin, coriaceous, strongly adherent; mesocarp spongy, white; endocarp segments 9-12, strongly adherent, centre solid, pulp-vesicles slender, fusiform, greenish-white; juice abundant, intensely acidic and sour. Seeds ovoid; plump, pale; embryo white. Flowering: March-April. Fruiting: October-November.

Habitat: Regularly or recently cultivated agricultural, horticultural and domestic habitats

Distribution:  Eastern Asia

Uses:  medicinal in Ayurveda, Folk medicine, Unani, Siddha, Traditional chinese medicine